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What is EPO or Erythropoietin?
Erythropoietin Abbreviated as EPO is a cytokine glycoprotein also known as hemopoietin. A hormone is required for erythropoiesis, a process that regulates red blood cell production in the human body.
EPO or Erythropoietin is an erythropoiesis assistant, secreted by the liver and kidneys in response to hypoxia (deficiency in oxygen cellular access). A process of production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
When your body deprives itself of enough supply of oxygen at the tissue and cellular level, this hypoxic condition is treated with erythropoietin secretion. The kidney will release erythropoietin by targeting proerythroblasts, CFU-E, and basophilic erythroblast subsets. The basic function of erythropoietin is to approach RBC progenitors in the human bone marrow and to protect them from apoptosis (the process of cell death).
EPO - How does it work?
Erythropoietin binds to the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and executes its effects. EPO is the JAK2 signaling flow activator that binds to the erythropoietin receptor at the surface of red blood cells. There are different initiated routes like PIK3, STAT5, and Ras MAPK. The result is survival, growth, and differentiation among erythroid cells. Erythroid progenitors are the localized sites as erythropoietin receptors with high-level expression.
This exogenous erythropoietin is produced by an advanced recombinant DNA technology and is widely used in the treatment of chronic renal anemia, perioperative surgical blood loss, antiviral drug treatment, and myelodysplastic syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chemotherapy-induced anemia, and other chronic factors.
ESA (Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents) therapy gives clinically significant results.
EPO use in Sports by athletes and cyclists:
Buying erythropoietin - more generally referred to as EPO — is a type of blood doping and familiar performance-boosting agent that greatly increases your erythropoietin levels, artificially producing more red blood cells and increase in oxygen transport capacity. An increased amount of oxygen can be provided to tissues, especially muscles. Thus many athletes buy Epo to enhance their oxygen-carrying capacity, which serves as fuel for an athlete’s muscle activity and works as performance enhancement.
During the 2002 Tour de France, where entire Festina squad was disqualified after so many hundred doses of EPO and other illicit drugs were discovered in the team car. This was the first time that buying EPO was brought to the people's attention.
Types of erythropoietin and their differences:
Epoetin-alpha, epoetin-beta, epoetin-theta, and other EPO types have the same amino acid sequence, but glycosylation differs due to changes in the synthesis process between types and hosts.
Epoetin-alpha has a longer serum half-life and higher relative efficacy, which increases as the delivery interval is increased. In healthy patients, the half-life of epoetin alfa after multiple dosage intravenous injections is around 4 hours. In healthy patients, the subcutaneous route's half-life is predicted to be around 24 hours.
Epoetin-beta has been the topic of research aiming at demonstrating efficacy with lower administration frequency, although the results are mixed. In healthy patients, the half-life of epoetin beta after multiple dosage intravenous injections is approximately 6-8 hours. In healthy patients, the subcutaneous route's half-life is predicted to be around 21 hours.
Epoetin theta has a half-life of 6 hours after a single dose and 4 hours in a steady state. Epoetin theta is given subcutaneously once a week
EPO: Dose, Use & Pharmacology:
The dosage is dependent on your medical condition, weight, and therapeutic reaction. Blood testing will also be performed to verify how well this drug works and to determine the right dosage for you.
Disclaimer: We do not provide nor suggest any kind of dose for anyone. Please consult with your doctor for dosage instructions. Buying Erythropoietin only under strict medical supervision.
This medication can be given as an injection, usually 1 to 3 times a week, underneath the skin or into a vein as prescribed by the doctor. Patients who obtain this drug may have a specific dosing schedule before the surgery.
Erythropoietin has a half-life of 5 hours in human blood. It is a glycosylated growth hormone that triggers the differentiation of erythroid ancestors in the bone marrow. The half-life may vary in recombinant or endogenous versions.
The commencement of an action is about 7–10 days, although It may take two to eight weeks to get your red blood cell count up. Taking this drug frequently is the key to getting most of it.
- increased blood hemoglobin levels than 11g/dl.
- Myocardial infection/Heart attack
- Brain stroke
- Cancer recurrence
- Venous thromboembolism
Healthy volunteers or Athletes:
Average half-life of healthy volunteers receiving an intravenous injection is around four hours. Children have been reported to have a half-life of about 6 hours.
Cancer patients undergoing cyclic cancer treatment: The average half-life after subcutaneous injection is 40 hours with a duration of 17 to 68 hours.
Adult and pediatric patients: Half-life elimination after intravenous administration differs from 4 to 15 hours, which in CRF patients is about 20 percent longer than in healthy individuals. The half-life is stated to be identical among adult patients receiving dialysis or otherwise.
The EPO occasionally causes seizures, particularly during the first approximately 70 days of treatment. It is ideal during this time to avoid traveling, using machinery, or doing other tasks that could cause serious harm if a seizure occurs when you are performing them.
Never use this drug if you have an allergic reaction to hemoglobin or compounds obtained from human or animal cells.
EPO / Erythropoietin is serious medicine and should only be used under strict medical supervision.
Store in a refrigerator (2°C – 8°C).
Do not freeze.
Keep the pre-filled syringe away from the light.
While most EPOs before first use are stable to room temperature and can be ordered by regular mail. We still recommend using Couriers when buying EPO online.
Place and store it in the refrigerator upon receipt.
The current techniques used for doping tests are direct and indirect methods. Erythropoietin can be found in urine or blood samples. Blood is more likely to be detected than urine. The probability of detection decreases significantly after 2-3 days. EPO half-life is 5-9 hours.
Heparin is used as a masking agent. Protease injection into the bladder through a catheter is also used.
Erythropoietin For Sale
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Buy EPO (Erythropoietin) ▲ Frequently asked questions
What is the Normal EPO range?
The typical range per milliliter (mU / mL) is 2.3 to 18.4 milliunits. The normal ranges of values may vary slightly from one laboratory to another. Some laboratories use different measurements or test various samples. Discuss the meaning of your particular test result with your health care provider.
Secondary polycythemia can cause a higher EPO level. This is a red blood cell overproduction occurring in response to a particular situation such as low blood oxygen levels. The situation may occur at high velocities or, rarely, due to an EPO-releasing tumor.
Which diseases does Erythropoietin treat or control by prescribed medication or injections?
The most frequent use is in patients with kidney failure-associated anemia (reduced blood count). They contain less than normal quantities of erythropoietin when the kidneys are not working properly, which can result in lower production of red blood cells, or anemia. Thus, chronic inflammation related to kidney infection may be treated by substituting the erythropoietin with an intravenous infusion of synthetic erythropoietin.
Where and what physical results can be achieved with it?
For example, erythropoietin is often used by athletes in long-distance competitions, speed skateboarders, runners, and Nordic (cross-country) mountaineers as a performance-enhancing medication. It is assumed that erythropoietin is especially helpful when used in these circumstances.
Recent research has shown that cyclists or athletes who have ingested EPO help improve their endurance and efficiency by 24%.
What are the risks of taking erythropoietin?
EPO may raise the risk of endometrial cancer (the venous blood clots). A blood clot can split away from one location and move to the lung (pericardial effusion), blocking circulation. Symptoms of clots include chest pain, nausea, soreness in the legs, extreme headache, neck, or leg numbness, or stiffness.
EPO can cause blood cells to rise very high, putting the patient at an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, and death.
EPO may trigger tumor growth in patients who've had cancer. If EPO is used for these purposes, they are stopped after the patient has completed chemotherapy.
The medical practitioner will keep a keen eye on the counts of blood cells in the patient to ensure that they do not put him or her at an elevated risk. Depending on the health and condition of the patient the dosing may change.
What will happen if I have far too much or to less Erythropoietin?
Excess erythropoietin results from prolonged low oxygen levels or rare erythropoietin-producing tumors. This causes a disorder called hypoglycemia which is a high count of red blood cells. Hypoglycemia isn't causing any effects in other cases. There are, however, other general and unspecific signs of fatigue, weakness, and nausea.
If you have far less erythropoietin, typically caused by chronic kidney disease, fewer red blood cells will occur, and you will get anemia. Pharmaceutically, erythropoietin was made for the treatment of anemia that ultimately resulted from chronic kidney disease. This is also prescribed to patients of certain rarer cancer types.